Abstract

Knowledge of the development and maintenance processes of double warm cores in tropical cyclones is important for full understanding of the dynamics of storm intensity changes. During its mature stage, Typhoon Lan (2017) had a clear double warm-core structure, which was observed by dropsondes. In this study, to investigate the intensification and maintenance of the double warm-core structure, a numerical simulation of the storm is performed with a cloud-resolving model and verified by dropsonde and satellite observations. A potential temperature budget and backward trajectories are diagnosed to examine intensification and maintenance processes in the simulated eye. The budget analysis indicates that, during the most rapidly intensifying stage, a double warm core is enhanced by axisymmetric subsidence warming in the eye. In the mature stage, upper-core warming is mostly canceled by ventilation due to vertical wind shear, but the lower core continues to warm by asymmetric advection, possibly associated with dynamical instability in the eyewall. The results raise a topic of interest: It is difficult to fully explain the axisymmetric subsidence warming process during the most rapidly intensifying stage by the dynamical response in an axisymmetric balanced vortex. The back-trajectory analysis indicates that the air mass associated with the subsidence is partly induced by inward acceleration in subgradient regions (unbalanced processes) in the eyewall.

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